Course Description |Classes | Resources | Research Software | Assignment | Articles*Exams

* Articles (as examples for your assignment): try to understand their structure! See how researchers state their hypotheses, ask questions, make claims etc. 

Assignment Topics

A. There are four topics for an assignment: accommodation theory, code-switching, language change, and style and language.

B. There are two categories of assignments: (a) Literature Reviews, (b) the experimental studies.

1. Accommodation

1. Accommodation. A review

2. Communicating Villages: Language Accommodation vs. Language Variation.

2. Code Switching

1. Code Switching. A review

2. Code Switching. Employing two codes in speech.

3. Language change

1. Language Change. A review

2. Children Language – Adult Language: A Change In Progress?

3. Pao Paralia. Language change in progress?

4. Style and Language

1. Politeness cues among Cypriot Greek speakers.

2. Style and register. A review

Writing the Article

Sample Article: Follow the structure of this article.

Use the APA style.

Length 7 pages.


A. Define your research question(s)

1.      First, identify the variables that interest you. What are your questions and what are your hypotheses? What do you expect to find?

2.      Write down your variables and your questions.

B. Design your research carefully

3. Choose participants.

4.      Create a questionnaire (the questionnaire may be for your own use). You do not have to show it to the people you are asking.

5.      Think about the way you are going to ask the questions; you must not affect the response of your speakers in any way, because in this way your results will be biased. Perhaps by showing images or videos, is one way to ask some of the questions. You can do a map task as well or you can devise games in order to elicit as natural speech as possible.

6.      You may make recordings or use a notebook to collect the responses.

==> Keep a journal about the major problems you had, solutions you found, why did you select those participants etc. Read this article about fieldwork and follow the best advice you find in this article.


Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS): Information Recommended for Inclusion in Manuscripts That Report New Data Collections Regardless of Research Design

Title and title page

Identify variables and theoretical issues under investigation and the relationship between them Author note contains acknowledgment of special circumstances:

Use of data also appearing in previous publications, dissertations, or conference papers Sources of funding or other support
Relationships that may be perceived as conflicts of interest


Problem under investigation
Participants or subjects; specifying pertinent characteristics; in animal research, include genus and species
Study method, including:

Sample size
. Any apparatus used. 
Outcome measures. 
Data-gathering procedures
.Research design (e.g., experiment, observational study)

Findings, including effect sizes and confidence intervals and/or statistical significance levels Conclusions and the implications or applications



The importance of the problem (Provide a Rationale): Theoretical or practical implications

Review of relevant scholarship (Literature Review): 
Relation to previous work
. If other aspects of this study have been reported on previously, how the current report differs from these earlier reports Specific hypotheses and objectives:

Theories or other means used to derive hypotheses

Primary and secondary hypotheses, other planned analyses

How hypotheses and research design relate to one another



Eligibility and exclusion criteria, including any restrictions based on demographic characteristics

Major demographic characteristics as well as important topic-specific characteristics (e.g., achievement level in studies of educational interventions), or in the case of animal research, genus and species

Sampling procedures

Procedures for selecting participants, including:
The sampling method if a systematic sampling plan was implemented Percentage of sample approached that participated
Self-selection (either by individuals or units, such as schools or clinics)

Settings and locations where data were collected
Agreements and payments made to participants
Institutional review board agreements, ethical standards met, safety monitoring

Sample size, power, and precision

Intended sample size
Actual sample size, if different from intended sample size
How sample size was determined:

Power analysis, or methods used to determine precision of parameter estimates

Explanation of any interim analyses and stopping rules

Measures and covariates

Definitions of all primary and secondary measures and covariates:

Include measures collected but not included in this report Methods used to collect data
Methods used to enhance the quality of measurements:

Training and reliability of data collectors

Use of multiple observations
Information on validated or ad hoc instruments created for individual studies, for example,

psychometric and biometric properties

Research design

Whether conditions were manipulated or naturally observed

Type of research design; provided in Table 3 are modules for:

Randomized experiments


Other designs would have different reporting needs associated with them


Participant flow

Total number of participants
Flow of participants through each stage of the study

Recruitment Statistics and data analysis

Dates defining the periods of recruitment and repeated measurements or follow-up Information concerning problems with statistical assumptions and/or data distributions that could affect the validity of findings

Missing data:

Frequency or percentages of missing data
Empirical evidence and/or τheoretical arguments for the causes of data that are missing, for example, missing completely at random (MCAR), missing at random (MAR), or missing not at random (MNAR)
Methods for addressing missing data, if used

For each primary and secondary outcome and for each subgroup, a summary of:

Cases deleted from each analysis
Subgroup or cell sample sizes, cell means, standard deviations, or other estimates of precision, and other descriptive statistics

Effect sizes and confidence intervals

For inferential statistics (null hypothesis significance testing), information about:
The a priori Type I error rate adopted

Direction, magnitude, degrees of freedom, and exact p level, even if no significant effect is reported

For multivariable analytic systems (e.g., multivariate analyses of variance, regression analyses,structural equation modeling analyses, and hierarchical linear modeling) also include the associated variance–covariance (or correlation) matrix or matrices

Estimation problems (e.g., failure to converge, bad solution spaces), anomalous data points

Statistical software program, if specialized procedures were used

Report any other analyses performed, including adjusted analyses, indicating those that were prespecified and those that were exploratory (though not necessarily in level of detail of primary analyses)

Discussion of implications of ancillary analyses for statistical error rates

Statement of support or nonsupport for all original hypotheses:

Distinguished by primary and secondary hypotheses

Post hoc explanations

Similarities and differences between results and work of others

Interpretation of the results, taking into account:

Sources of potential bias and other threats to internal validity

Imprecision of measures

The overall number of tests or overlap among tests, and

Other limitations or weaknesses of the study

Generalizability (external validity) of the findings, taking into account:

The target population
Other contextual issues

Discussion of implications for future research, program, or policy

Enjoy! This is an excellent way to learn how to do your own research!


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